Conversion Charts

Temperatures, Weights and Measures

Cookery books from different countries, even different periods in the same country use different units of measurements. They are a minefield of confusion. Change to metric system in recent times has made life easier, but many people are resistant to change. I read somewhere; "if God had meant humans to use the metric system, he'd have given us ten fingers!!"

I have attempted below to make some sense of this confusion, hope you will find what you are looking for. Generally speaking, rounding up a conversion to the nearest complete figure, e.g. 28.4 ml to 30 ml, is enough.

Oven Temperature

Always warm the oven for at least 10 minutes or until the indicator light goes out telling you that the desired temperature has been reached. Oven temperatures vary. Fan ovens should be kept around 10-15? C lower than ordinary ones.

FahrenheitCentigradeGas Oven MarkDescription
475F246C9Very Hot
450F232C8Very Hot
425F218C7Fairly Hot
400F204C6Fairly Hot
375F191C5Moderately Hot
350F177C4Warm
325F163C3Warm
300F149C2Cool
275F135C1Cool
250F121CVery Cool
225F110CVery Cool


Metric and Imperial Weights

It is a good idea to have one large weighing scale that will measure up to 5 kg. A smaller scale, the type often used by people on a diet, is good for measuring very small quantities accurately.

For general use, approximate measures of conversions work quite well and are easier to calculate. Here are some common conversion required in everyday cooking;

5 ml. = 1 teaspoon

15 ml. = 1 tablespoon

15 ml. = 3 teaspoons

250 ml. = 1 cup or 8 fluid oz

125 ml. = 1/2 cup

65 ml. = 1/4 cup

125 gm. = 1/4 lb. (4 oz.)

250 gm. = 1/2 lb. (8 oz.)

500 gm. = 1 lb. (1 pound or 16 oz.)

750 gm. = 1 1/2 lbs.

1 kilogram = 2 lbs.

A pinch = 1 ml.

More accurate measures:

10 gm.0.5 oz.
20 gm.0.75 oz.
25 gm.1 oz.
50 gm.2 oz.
75 gm.3 oz
110 gm.4 oz.
150 gm.5 oz.
175 gm.6 oz.
200 gm.7 oz.
225 gm.8 oz.
250 gm.9 oz.
275 gm.9.5 oz.
300 gm..10.5 oz.
350 gm.12 oz.
375 gm.13 oz.
400 gm.14 oz.
425 gm.15 oz.
450 gm.1 lb. (pound)
500 gm.1 lb. 2 oz.
700 gm.1 lb. 9 oz.
750 gm.1 lb. 10 oz.
1 kg.2 lb. 3 oz.
1.25 kg.2 lb. 12 oz.
1.5 kg.3 lb. 5 oz.
1.75 kg.3 lb. 14 oz.
2 kg.4 lb. 6 oz.
2.25 kg.4 lb. 15 oz.
2.5 kg.5 lb. 8 oz.
2.75 kg.6 lb. 1 oz.
3 kg.6 lb. 10 oz.

1 US stick of butter = 1/4 pounds = 113.5 gm.


Volumes/Liquid Measure

Spoons and cups are slightly different sizes, not only in different countries but even within the same country. Therefore, it is a good idea to buy a set of measuring spoons. They are available from all good kitchen stores and often come on a chain, so that they do not get separated.

Buy a measuring jug that has litres, millilitres, pints and fluid ounces marked. Generally, rounding up a conversion to the nearest complete figure, e.g. 28.4 ml as 30 ml, is enough.

128 fl.oz.
1.25 ml. (millilitres)1/4 teaspoon
2.5 ml.1/2 teaspoon
5 ml.1 level teaspoon
15 ml1 tablespoon1/2 fl. oz. (fluid ounce)
20 ml.1 dessertspoon
30 ml. (28.4ml.)1 fl. oz. (fluid ounce) 29.5 ml. US
50 ml.2 fl. oz.
59 ml. 1/4 US Cup
74 ml. 1/4 UK Cup
118 ml.4 fl. oz. 1/2 US Cup
150 ml. 0.5 (UK) pint1/2 UK Cup
200 ml. 0.66 pint
240 ml8 fl. oz. 1 US Cup
300 ml10 fl. oz.0.5 pint1 UK Cup
425 ml15 fl. oz.075 pint
480 ml16 fl. oz.1 US pint
600 ml20 fl. oz.1 pint
700 ml23 fl. oz.1.25 pints
850 ml28 fl. oz.1.5 pints
1 Litre33 fl. oz.1.75 pints
1.2 Litre1 quart2 pints
2 Litre 3 pints
3800 ml1 US gallon
4800 ml1 UK gallon8 pints or 160 fl.oz.


Old Indian Measures

These old Indian measures are from my dad's old recipe book. Some very old recipes still mention them.

1 masha8 ratti1 gram
1 tola12 masha12 grams
1 chatak5 tola60 grams
1 pav4 chatak250 grams
1 ser4 pav1 kilogram